duminică, 21 iunie 2015


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1. Corvin LUPU, ASPECTE DIN ISTORIA SECURITATII. DE LA SMERS LA „TRADAREA” KGBULUI APPEARANCES OF THE SECURITATE’S HISTORY. FROM SMERS TO THE KGB’S TREASON Abstract The article presents three important moments of the Romanian secret political policy and information system history. It is usually spoken about the crimes committed by the Securitate, especially in the period of the Soviet Union military occupation (1944-1958). The first moment related is about the creation of the Securitate by the Soviets and shows nominally the most important leaders of the institution, which were especially selected from the ethnical minorities groups. Most of them were Jews. In the same time it is related about the very important role of the Soviet counselors. The second part of the article presents the moment of the Securitate’s history in which the Romanian national political movement brought especially Romanians in Securitate and begin the process of elimination the Jews and other ethnic minorities from the institution. In the last part of the article, it is shown how the Securitate and Romania catch up as an enemy of the Soviet Union. After many years of preparations, in closely cooperation with the most important Occidental states, Soviet Union succeed in to change the Romanian political system and the Ceausescu’s independent policy. Keywords Securitate, crimes, Jews, political policy, secret service, independence Institutional affiliation of the author(s): „Lucian Blaga” University in Sibiu, Faculty for Political Sciences, International Relations and European Studies, Calea Dumbravii Street, No. 34, Phone: +40.269.422.169, Fax:+40.269.422.169, e-mail: sprise@ulbsibiu.ro , web: http://sprise.ulbsibiu.ro E-mail: corvinlupuro@yahoo.com

2. Pavel MORARU, VIZIUNEA ROMÂNEASCA PRIVIND ATRAGEREA TURCIEI ÎN CEL DE-AL DOILEA RAZBOI MONDIAL ROMANIAN VIEW ON TURKEY ATTRACT TO THE SECOND WOLD WAR Abstract During the Second World War, Turkey had been the center of attention of the countries involved in the war, due to its geostrategic position. On 26 June, 1941, Turkey proclaimed its neutrality. Germany and Great Britain put pressure upon it in order to enter the war. Turkey did not accept and the Romanian military attaché in Ankara, colonel Traian Teodorescu, tried to explain the causes of that situation. His report’s conclusion was: Turkey avoided the engagement in the war and tried to maintain an equal distance between both the Axis and the Allies, because of the uncertain position of the Soviet Union regarding the Turkey’s territorial integrity, especially the straits. Keywords Second World War, Turkey, Romania, neutrality Institutional affiliation of the author(s): „Lucian Blaga” University in Sibiu, Faculty for Political Sciences, International Relations and European Studies Calea Dumbravii Street, No. 34, Phone: +40.269.422.169, Fax:+40.269.422.169, e-mail: sprise@ulbsibiu.ro, web: http://sprise.ulbsibiu.ro E-mail: morarup@yahoo.de 

3. Stelian SCAUNAS DEFINITIA CONVENTIONALA A CRIMEI DE AGRESIUNE SI COMPETENTA CURTII PENALE INTERNATIONALE CU PRIVIRE LA ACEASTA, CA POSIBILA REALITATE DOAR DUPA ANUL 2017 CRIME OF AGGRESSION CONVENTIONAL DEFINITION AND THE COMPETENCE OF THE INTERNATIONAL CRIMINAL COURT IN THIS MATTER, AS A POSSIBLE REALITY ONLY AFTER 2017 Abstract The absence of a clear definition of aggression and the means by which it would be limited in the international behavior, especially by defining and punishing serious crimes of aggression, is one of the biggest problems that the international community is facing for more than half a century and without solving it, the ideal international law as a right of peace is virtually unattainable. We are today in the presence of a laudable attempt to define aggression and the crime of aggression closely linked to the work of States Parties to the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court. It is a laudable attempt, because it tries to end the string of failed attempts in the interwar period and especially after the adoption of the UN Charter, which proclaims non-aggression treaty as one of the seven fundamental principles of public international law. It is about the Review Conference of the International Criminal Court Statute, which took place from May 31 to June 11, 2010, in Kampala, Uganda, the conference convened by the General Secretary of the United Nations, aimed at defining the crime of aggression, knowing the fact that this international criminal court, the first world criminal court established by a general treaty, had suspended by its jurisdiction the crime of aggression just because of the absence of a conventional definition of the crime. For a long time, the states have had a legitimate right to make war (jus ad bellum), namely to use armed force to resolve the disputes between them. The concerns for limiting the war as an instrument of national policy of the States and peaceful settlement of international disputes, although they appeared quite late in terms of rules of international law, become almost an obsession that will become more prominent after the Second World War . With the adoption of the UN Charter, the irregularly war of aggression becomes a rule with character of universality and with a value of fundamental principle of public international law. Basically, the UN Charter requires to the states the obligation to refrain in their international relations from the threat of using force or to use it against the territorial integrity or political independence of any State, or otherwise in inconsistent with the Purposes of the United Nations. Other international documents will reaffirm and develop this prohibition with value of fundamental principle. After 12 years from the adoption of the Statute of the International Criminal Court and 10 years after its entry into force, we are witnessing a strong attempt to revise the treaty, precisely in order to define the crime of aggression and thus to offer the Court the necessary jurisdiction to judge this crime. Beyond the importance of the historical definition of the crime of aggression, which opens the way towards becoming effective public international law as jus against bellum, the revision of the Rome Statute adds efficiency to the International Criminal Court, that along with few other exceptions, represents the required justice at universal level. All of these are outstanding results of the international community's efforts to put an end to a great extent, to the arbitrary manifest in international relations, especially regarding the use of force as an instrument of national policy. We can hardly say that these achievements are the best as possible regulators of public international law. Keywords public international law, international criminal Responsibility, International Criminal Court, International Crimes, aggression, crimes of aggression Institutional affiliation of the author(s): „Lucian Blaga” University in Sibiu, Faculty for Political Sciences, International Relations and European Studies, Calea Dumbravii Street, No. 34, Phone: +40.269.422.169, Fax:+40.269.422.169, e-mail: sprise@ulbsibiu.ro , web: http://sprise.ulbsibiu.ro E-mail: scaunass@yahoo.com

4. Silviu NATE 1 Aurelian RATIU 2 ABUZURI SI ÎNCALCARI GRAVE ALE DREPTURILOR OMULUI ÎN TIMPUL CONFLICTELOR ARMATE. HUMAN RIGHTS ABUSE AND SERIOUS VIOLATIONS DURING ARMED CONFLICTS Abstract The term "war crime" refers to a violation of the rules of jus in bello (justice in war) by any individual, whether military or civilian. The laws of armed conflict prohibit attacks on civilians and the use of weapons that cause unnecessary suffering or long-term environmental damage. Other war crimes include taking hostages, firing on localities that are undefended and without military significance, such as hospitals or schools, inhuman treatment of prisoners, including biological experiments, and the pillage or purposeless destruction of property. Although clearly outlawed by international law, such war crimes are common. Keywords Human rights, war crime, justice, abuse, children rights, conflict Institutional affiliation of the author(s): (1) „Lucian Blaga” University in Sibiu, Faculty for Political Sciences, International Relations and European Studies, Calea Dumbravii Street, No. 34, Phone: +40.269.422.169, Fax:+40.269.422.169, e-mail: sprise@ulbsibiu.ro, web: http://sprise.ulbsibiu.ro (2) Land Forces Academy “Nicolae Balcescu”, Revolutiei Str. No. 3-5, 550170, Sibiu, Romania, www.armyacademy.ro, Tel: ++40-269-432990, Fax: ++40-269- 436362, E-mail:office@armyacademy.ro; (1) E-mail: silviu.nate@ulbsibiu.ro (2) E-mail: aurelian_ratiu@yahoo.com

5. Vasile TABARA CONSIDERATII ASUPRA CONSECINTELOR MIGRATIEI REFLECTIONS ON THE CONSEQUENCES OF MIGRATION Abstract Economic globalization encourages migration, but migration is to occur and the threat of cultural transformation that can induce host countries to ally to stop this phenomenon by treaties and agreements on border control. The phenomenon of migration is related to: increase and expansion of multinational companies, armed conflicts, economic collapse, political or religious persecution, natural disasters. Keywords Globalization, migration, threats on security, armed conflicts, economic collapse, political or religious persecution, natural disasters Institutional affiliation of the author(s): „Lucian Blaga” University in Sibiu, Faculty for Political Sciences, International Relations and European Studies Calea Dumbravii Street, No. 34, Phone: +40.269.422.169, Fax:+40.269.422.169, e-mail: sprise@ulbsibiu.ro, web: http://sprise.ulbsibiu.ro E-mail: vasile.tabara@ulbsibiu.ro 

6. Eugen STRAUTIU EURASIANISM SI NEOEURASIANISM EURASIANISM AND NEO-EURASIANISM Abstract Geopolitical and security thinking in contemporary, eurasianism is already a tradition that allows its versions and schools. Like any ideological paradigm, representatives of various tendences use to contradict and offer significantly different views, in the same paradigm. Today, the emblematic figure represented neoeurasianism is Russian scientist Alexander Dughin. Keywords geopolitics, security, pan-slavism, eurasianism, atlanticism Institutional affiliation of the author(s): „Lucian Blaga” University in Sibiu, Faculty for Political Sciences, International Relations and European Studies Calea Dumbravii Street, No. 34, Phone: +40.269.422.169, Fax:+40.269.422.169, e-mail: sprise@ulbsibiu.ro, web: http://sprise.ulbsibiu.ro E-mail: eugen.strautiu@ulbsibiu.ro 

7. Ioana STRAT POLITICA EUROPEANA DE VECINATATE SI MANAGEMENTUL CONFLICTELOR ÎNGHETATE DIN SPATIUL POST-SOVIETIC. UN CADRU DE ANALIZA EUROPEAN NEIGHBOURHOOD POLICY AND MANAGEMENT OF FOREZEN CONFLITS IN POST-SOVIET SPACE. A FRAMEWORK FOR ANALYSIS Abstract This paper seeks to discern a modus operandi in EU conflict management as part of a comprehensive approach to end the post-Soviet conflicts, extend security and foster regional cooperation beyond EU’s borders after its enlargement to Central and Eastern Europe. The European Security Strategy launched a discourse focusing on preventing threats, building security and committing to peaceful conflict resolution in the near abroad. In practice, the EU developed a specific conflict management pattern in the Eastern neighborhood based on reterritorialization and equal partnership, while aiming to foster stronger regional ties among the post-Soviet countries. Although not a conflict resolution instrument per se, the European Neighborhood Policy stems from a geopolitical vision inspired by the EU’s cross-border reterritorialization approach, aiming to prevent new fault lines and structural gaps between the EU-27 and its neighbors. However, the lack of accession conditionalities raises concerns about the reluctance of EU’s partners to respect the ENP commitments, while the increasing protection of EU’s external borders threatens to undermine the logics of cross-border cooperation and raise new barriers of mistrust. Likewise, underestimating Russia’s competitive tactics and the obvious differences between the Caucasian states can prevent the EU from advancing regional cooperation and influencing effective conflict management. Keywords EU reterritorialization, conflict management, European Neighborhood Policy, post-Soviet conflicts Institutional affiliation of the author(s): Faculty of History and Philosophy, „Babes-Bolyai” University, Cluj-Napoca, Str. Mihail Kogalniceanu nr.1, Cluj-Napoca, telefon 0264-405300 E-mail: ioana_strat@yahoo.fr 

8. Viorica TÎCU SPATIUL POST-SOVIETIC ÎN CAUTAREA UNEI IDENTITATI DE SECURITATE. CAZUL REPUBLICII MOLDOVA POST-SOVIET IDENTITY LOOKING FOR SECURITY. THE REPUBLIC OF MOLDOVA CASE Abstract Collapse of Soviet Union increased the world with 15 independent countries. Historically each of the nations was unique with different cultural, political and economical development. Before events of 90th for world history was not familiar changing of countries with central economies into capitalist and democratic states. These countries somehow were the part of historical experiment, whether their development was forming under not natural conditions for the identity of their nations. But the post soviet countries built their development from zero. For numbers of countries their way from Moscow to European Union leaded to fully integration in democratic society. The problems of security within the territory of the former Soviet Union are numerous. The Republic of Moldova has undergone one of the more difficult and uneven transition processes of all postsoviet republics. In part, this has been due to the country’s uncertain political direction, positioned as it is between an expanding European Union to the west and Russia to the east. Political andterritorial separatism remains one of the main concerns and the obstacle in the process of state building and on the way of reintegrating the Moldovan society. The security architecture in the Republic of Moldova is still in the process of formation, which complicates the situation. The situation in Republic of Moldova represents a combination of many factors, such as: the disintegration of a huge, multiethnic, totalitarian empire; the security asymmetry between powerful ex-hegemony and weak neighbors; the dominance of ethnic nationalism; the simultaneous processes of reintegration and disintegration; the absence of democratic traditions in local political and economic culture and weakness of civil society. Keywords Post-Soviet space, Russia, transition, Republic of Moldova, neutrality status,security problems, Transnistria, risks, assessment Institutional affiliation of the author(s): History an International Relations Faculty, Free International University of Moldova, 52 Vlaicu Parcalab street, Chisinau, MD-2012 Republic of Moldova, Tel.: (+373 22) 220029; Tel/Fax.: (+373 22) 220028, email: office@ulim.md,http://ulim.md/ E-mail: ticuviorica@yahoo.com 

9. Eugen LUNGU CONFLICTUL DIN LIBIA – O AMENINTARE PENTRU SPATIUL TRADITIONAL DE SECURITATE AL ALIANTEI NORD-ATLANTICE? THE LIBYAN CONFLICT – A THREAT FOR THE TRADITIONAL SECURITY SPACE OF NATO? Abstract Starting on 31th March, 2011 the North Atlantic Organization took over military air operations against Gaddafi's loyal forces, having the agreement of the National Transition Council (the Libyan opposition). UN Resolution of 1973 was voted by 10 members of the UN Security Council and five members abstained from voting (China, Russia, Brazil, India and Germany). The states which are permanent members of the UN Security Council did not use the veto. It's a good thing as compared to Kosovos situation in 1999 when there were countries that were against it. The takeover by NATO of military operations in Libya hasdemonstrated that the alliance has some issues to solve in order to achieveconsensus when NATO executes a mission outside the traditional area of operations established by Treaties. Although within the NATO Summit of Lisbon in 2010 there was developed a New Alliance Strategic Concept, however, NATO has continued to have problems according to the member states` different perception of threats against the Alliance. The massive migration of Libyans to Tunisia, France, Italy, etc. created a security problem in North Africa and the Southern Europe. Within NATO, Germany did not want to participate with military forces in the operation in Libya, and Turkey opposed, in the first part, the making of a decision on NATO's military intervention in Libya. The decision of the UNSecurity Council concerning community international`s possibility to militarily intervene in Libya has reopened the debate on the doctrine of humanitarianintervention. Keywords Libya, North Atlantic Alliance, security, Libyan civil war, authoritarian regime Institutional affiliation of the author(s): Faculty of International Relations and European Studies, University of South East Europe LUMINA-Bucharest, Soseaua Colentina Street, No.64b, Sector 2, Phone, Fax: E-mail: eugenbuc2004@yahoo.com STIINTE POLITICE 

10. Delia STEFENEL MODELUL SUDIC AL MIGRATIEI POSTCOMUNISTE. RECONFIGURARE ÎN CONTEXTUL ACULTURATIEI ROMÂNILOR DIN ATENA THE SOUTHERN MODEL OF POST-COMUNIST MIGRATION. RECONFIGURATION AMONG ROMANIANS' ACCULTURATION IN ATHENS Abstract Even if there are many Greek texts about the migration of people coming from the ex-East-European communist block toGreece, the Romanian segment still remains understudied. Thus, the aim of the present study was to depict the dynamic of the first-generation Romanian economic migration to Greece, an ardent topic for the sending and the receiving society. More precisely, we intended to outline the immigrant profile, taking into account several specific factors before and after migration. Given that this paper is a part of a larger cross-cultural research about Romanians' acculturation and adjustment on the Hellenic territory, in this paper emphasis is given on the importance of minorities’ culture maintenance versus contact with hosts. In line with our assumptions and based on data collected from 126 native Greeks and 148 Romanian immigrants, the intergroup relationship could be explained and enhanced according to the significance both cohabitant communities give to personal and perceived culture and contact uphold. Keywords labour migration, acculturation, Romania Institutional affiliation of the author(s): University of Social and Political Sciences Panteion, Athens, Greece, 136 Sygrou Avenue, 17671 Athens E-mail: deliaste@yahoo.com 

11. Bogdan GHEORGHITA STRATIFICAREA SOCIALA ÎNTRE FUNCTIONALISM SI TEORIA CONFLICTULUI: ÎN CAUTAREA UNEI PERSPECTIVE INTEGRATOARE SOCIAL STRATIFICATION BETWEEN FUNCTIONALISM AND CONFLICT THEORY: LOOKING FOR A HOLISTIC VIEW Abstract The concept of „social stratification” is complex and has a long history. The two perspectives that have marked the history of stratification are the „functionalist” and the „conflict theory”. Despite this long history, only recently, through the works of Gerhard Lenksi, we can say that we witness an attempt to integrate the two perspectives. In this article we try to review the main points of view of the supporters of the functionalist and those of the conflict theory, by illustrating the common points, looking for a perspective that integrates them. Keywords social stratification, the conflict theory, functionalism, social class Institutional affiliation of the author(s): „Lucian Blaga” University in Sibiu, Faculty for Political Sciences, International Relations and European Studies Calea Dumbravii Street, No. 34, Phone: +40.269.422.169, Fax:+40.269.422.169, e-mail: sprise@ulbsibiu.ro, web: http://sprise.ulbsibiu.ro E-mail: bogdan.gheorghita@ulbsibiu.ro 

12. Diana Maria HULEA MODALITATILE DE SOLUTIONARE A CONFLICTELOR ÎN COMUNITATILE ROME TRADITIONALE HOW TO SOLVE CONFLICTS IN TRADITIONAL ROMA COMMUNITIES Abstract Each traditional Roma community is ruled by a leader, a person who is chosen for the age, experience, and wisdom. The leader of a Roma community is a person who inspires respect by his status and intelligence, a person who by his own life sets an example for the others. The leader settles minor disputes on the basis of his mature judgment, and his decisions are followed by the other members of the community. However, if the matter to be settled is a serious one, such as theft, adultery, acts of physical violence, or complicated disputes between two parties, a court is convened. This court is called the Kris. Kris is a traditional court for conflict resolution in the Roma culture. A Kris represents the Highest Court, collective wisdom and social consciousness simultaneously. It is the highest legal and moral authority and therefore the most important control organ over all areas of life. The main purpose of this paper is to present aspects regarding the traditional way of solving conflicts in the Roma community and to explain how Roma use superstition to substitute for traditional institutions of law and order. The data collection method used was the semi-structured interview. We selected 42 people who have representative opinions for the general population. The sample used is divided into two groups of subjects, those from rural areas and those from urban areas. These groups are divided into two categories according to whether the group belongs to the former nomadic people or to the sedentary people. It was found that in the traditional Roma community there are diffuse forms of collective authority, such as the community leaders or bulibasa, the Roma traditional trial and the authority exercised by the extended family, especially the elderly. Keywords conflict, rroma, traditions, community Institutional affiliation of the author(s): Faculty of Sociology and Social Work, University of Bucharest, Bd. Schitu Magureanu no. 9, Bucharest E-mail: diana.hulea@yahoo.com 

13. François-Robert GIROLAMI LA NOTION D'ÉTAT AU REGARD DE L'HISTOIRE. SON IMPORTANCE DANS LES RELATIONS INTERNATIONALES. SITUATION DES SOCIÉTÉS POST-COMMUNISTES THE NOTION OF STATE UNDER HISTORY, ITS IMPORTANCE IN INTERNATIONAL RELATIONS. SITUATION OF POST-COMMUNIST SOCIETIES Abstract Today, post-communist societies are built on the basis of their past. The report as maintenance populations of these countries is sometimes contradictory and should be studied by a multidisciplinary approach: not only political but also anthropological and sociological. Economically, the integration of these countries into the global economy is a major issue: it may be a factor for growth and stability, but also be victims of a global crisis. Perhaps, in these new countries will emerge a new definition of the state. Keywords state, international relations, transnational politics, security, independence Institutional affiliation of the author(s): Universite de Provence Aix-en-Provence, http://gsite.univ-provence.fr/ E-mail: fgirolami@club.fr 

14. Dana ALEXANDRU LOCUL SI ROLUL COLECTIVITATILOR LOCALE ÎN SISTEMUL DREPTULUI AN OVERVIEW ON THE LOCAL COLLECTIVITY PLACE IN THE LAW SYSTEM Abstract The legal doctrine debate on the notion of local collectivity is limited only to describing structures, ways of functioning or to examine attributions. The notion of local collectivity is a part of the legislation, the jurisprudence and of the doctrine that sets it in the fields of legal analysis. Local collectivities are socio-political and legal realities belonging to the contemporary administrative space, having a distinct identity and a constant evolution in the public interest ensuring mechanism. With legal status, local collectivities are able to participate in the legal circuit using the law mechanisms in their own name and in their members’ interest, as a power guarantee to act independently and effectively. The Europeanization process will necessarily help to ensure consistency of terminology in designation of realities, with status and common features and to which a greater role is devotes in the administrative mechanisms of public interest class insurance-a more meaningful class-the local one. Keywords local collectivity, local law, principles and techniques who organize the local collectivity Institutional affiliation of the author(s): „Lucian Blaga” University in Sibiu, Faculty for Political Sciences, International Relations and European Studies Calea Dumbravii Street, No. 34, Phone: +40.269.422.169, Fax:+40.269.422.169, e-mail: sprise@ulbsibiu.ro, web: http://sprise.ulbsibiu.ro E-mail: dana.alexandru@ulbsibiu.ro RECENZII 

15. Bogdan GEORGHITA PIERRE-JEAN LUIZARD, MODERNIZAREA TARILOR ISLAMICE, BUCURESTI, EDITURA ARTEMIS, 2008 Institutional affiliation of the author(s): „Lucian Blaga” University in Sibiu, Faculty for Political Sciences, International Relations and European Studies Calea Dumbravii Street, No. 34, Phone: +40.269.422.169, Fax:+40.269.422.169, e-mail: sprise@ulbsibiu.ro, web: http://sprise.ulbsibiu.ro E-mail: bogdan.gheorghita@ulbsibiu.ro PARTENERIATE 

16. Marius HALMAGHI ASOCIATIA ECOMUZEUL REGIONAL SIBIU REGIONAL ECOMUSEUM ASSOCIATION SIBIU Abstract Project Ecomuzeul Regional Association Sibiu (founded 2006) aims to develop a Ecomuzeu on the territory of six rural municipalities in the county of Sibiu, which supports local authorities and communities to save and presentation of cultural and natural heritage, economic integration circuits with competitive products, creating a quality travel offers, shaping an identity specific to the territory by involving local communities. Keywords Ecomuseum, Association, Environment, Village protection Institutional affiliation of the author(s): Regional Ecomuseum Assocation Sibiu, Tribunei Street no. 6, Sibiu E-mail: marius_halmaghi@yahoo.com

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